18 September 2009

108 - Vaishnava Divya Desams

108 Divya Desams - An IntroducBoldtion
In the Sri Vaishnava Sampradayam, a Divya Desam is a temple whose Perumal has been sung about by at least one Azhvar. This is called 'Mangala Sasanam". There are 108 Divya Desams, 106 of them on this earth and 2 that are not. The majority of these Divya Desams are in Tamil Nadu. There are a few in the states of Kerala and UP(including Uttaranchal) ,a couple in Andhra Pradhesh and one each in Gujarat and Nepal.
Before we embark on our quest for knowledge on 108 Tirupathis or DesaVaishnava Divya Desams, one will definitely be wondering why only some specific temples have qualified to be in this venerable list and why not others. Would that mean, other temples are not important or their sacredness any way stand diminished? No, certainly not. Every temple is a sacred place for worship of the Lord and nothing is any less important than the other. When we say this, then why the prefix "108 Tirupathis or Vaishnava Divya Desams"?
To answer this question, one must go back in time to the days of Azhwars ...It is considered that Azhwars are amsams of Lord Sri Vishnu and they were sent to the earth to establish and spread bhakthi marga. They had spent their conscious time in constant chanting of the Lord and absolute in the knowledge that the Lord will grant them Moksha. They are considered superior to the Rishis because unlike the Rishis (who spent their times in forests in performing yagas, etc., to attain Lotus Feet of the Lord), Azhwars spent their time among ordinary mortals and showed that even an ordinary person can follow the path towards Moksha through their pasurams.
To lead us to Moksha through our worship of the Lord, these Azhwars set forth to various Temples (or Divya Kshetrams) in search of the places where Lord Sri Vishnu had come to this world in the Archavatara state (Dieification in the form of Idols). They sang in praise of the Lord of these temples and identified to us the places so that we can also worship there and attain Moksha like they did. "What I could not do in so many of my earlier periods, I could enjoin the Paramathma in a few days, by being born as a human being keeping that as the only principle", says Namazhwar.
It was stated earlier that Azhwars were considered as amsams of Lord Sri Vishnu Himself and it was He who had sent the Azhwars to the earth so that they can continue the good deeds that He had accomplished during His previous nine Avataras. For the sake of brevity, we shall see ‘Why only the specific temples are referred as 108 Divya Desams’.
According to Sriranga Mahamithyam, Lord Ranganathar informed Brahma, "I take many avataras to uphold dharma and eradicate evils whenever necessary. I will be in the form of a man, or an animal. I will also be in the form of idols (archavatara) - made from wood, sand, metals and stone by a good sthapathi. Further, these archavatara rupas (or forms or shapes) should be pleasing and lively to the seekers' eyes so that they can offer uninterrupted worship to Me".
He also expounded that "I am the one who is in each of these 108 Tirupathis". Among the 108 Divya Desams, it is believed that the following eight were not created by any human hands (in other words - they came on their own) known as Swayamvaktha Kshetras . They are (1) Srirangam (2) Srimushnam (3) Thiruvenkadam Hills (4) Salagrama Hills (5) Naimicharanyam (6) Thodhathri (7) Pushkara Kshetram (8) Badhri.
Lord Rangathar further said: "Temples which were constructed or erected where Lord Vishnu's idols were installed and worshipped by other gods or semi-gods or angels will be known as "Divya Kshetrams (or ."Temples which were established and Lord Vishnu's Idols were installed by great Rishis like Vyasa, Maithreyar, Marisi, and others (who earned the names as "sidhas" by their worshipping Me) will be known as "Saidham (or ."Then, there would be other persons who would construct temples for worshipping Me. These would be known as "Maanusham .
Thus, the above three types of temples have been known as 108 Tirupathis. He further informed Brahma "He will bless those who worship me in my Arachavatara state and grant them their wishes. They will be blessed with every good thing while on earth and Moksha upon leaving the mortal remains".As the idols installed ceremoniously and prayers offered as per agamas in the shrines, it is the most easily accessible form of Lord Vishnu or Sriman Narayana that human beings can turn to for their physical and spiritual welfare. God is amenable in that the installed deity gives divine experience as adorable object to the devotee, capable of leading him to the highest blissful experiences.
It is the unique privilege of Srivaishnavas to worship Him in the holy shrines known as 108 Tirupathis (Divya Desams) which have all been the centre of attraction for the Azhwars and Acharyas (like Ramanuja, Vedanta Desikan).
With the above as introduction, I take you on a tour of these 108 Divya Desams......A presentation by Shri T. Sampath Kumaran, an exponent in the field of South Indian Temples and Archaeological Monuments.
You may click the link below to go on this holy pilgrimage through the 108 Divya Desams....
With this, my post on the 108 Vaishnava Divya Desams comes to a close. Keep watching for my next posting....

17 September 2009

Paadal Petra Shiva Sthalams/Temples

Lord Shiva, popularly termed as the lord of destruction, but without whom creation cannot occur, is symbolized by the Shiva Lingam. Saivism is the major faith in the Indian system of belief, that worships Shiva as its principal God.

Shiva temples are spread all over India. Most important among them, glorified by the 63 Tamil Nayanmars, particularly the 3 viz, Thirunavukarasar (Appar), Sundarar and Sambandar in their Tevaram hymn, are revered as the Tevara Paadal Petra Sthalams. They are 274 Shiva temples in number and out of which 264 temples are situated in Tamilnadu. The 274 odd shrines that have at least one Pathigam composed in their honor are referred to commonly as Paadal Petra Stalangal, or more generally Shivastalams.


  • Chola Nadu - North of Kaveri [63 temples]
  • Chola Nadu - South of Kaveri [128 temples]
  • Eezha Nadu - Sri Lanka [2 temples]
  • Pandya Nadu [14 temples]
  • Malai Nadu - Kerala [1 temple]
  • Kongu Nadu [6 temples]
  • Nadu Nadu [22 temples]
  • Tondai Nadu [32 temples]
  • Tulava Nadu - Karnataka [1 temple]
  • Vada Nadu [5 temples]

Some of these Shiva Temples, glorified and referred as Paadal Petra Shiva Sthalams, are among the greatest in the world and include temples carved in solid rock, huge temples with elaborately sculptured towers, all ornamented with delicate decorative work. Most of these temples are of stone, though a few are of brick. Artists carved the exterior and sometimes the interior with hundreds of figures of Gods, people, animals and plants. Most temples have one or several pillared halls called mandapam. Worshippers pass through the halls to a garbhagraha (sanctum sanctorum) where the idol of the temple's main deity (God or Goddess) is housed.

To have a clear knowledge/understanding of the Paadal Petra Shiva Sthalams, I bring to you here , a Guide to these 275 Siva Sthalams, Glorified by Thevaram Hymns[Pathigams] of Nayanmars - [Courtesy Shri T.Sampath Kumaran, an exponent in the field of South Indian Temples and Archaeological Monuments].
The Link to the presentation is given below:
For the Tamil Version of the Paadal Petra Shiva Sthalsms, you may use the following link:
With this, my post on "Shiva Sthalams/ Temples" comes to a close. My next posting will be on "Srivaishnava Divya Desams [108 Divya Desams].
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